Partial Solar Eclipse – 25th October 2022

On 25th October 2022 along with Diwali, India is going to experience a partial solar eclipse. Solar eclipse will be visible from the most of part of India excluding North-East states. Here are few highlights and related scientific explanation of this astronomical event.

What is Partial Solar Eclipse?

Solar eclipses occurs when the Moon comes in between the Sun and Earth. As a result, an observer from Earth can see the Moon passing over and covering the Sun.
Also, during solar eclipse, due to the Sun, the Moon’s shadow is casted on the Earth.

A partial solar eclipse occurs when, the Moon, the Sun and Earth are not aligned in a perfectly straight line. In this type of eclipse, the Sun is only partially obscured by the Moon. From our perspective, this looks like the Moon has taken a bite out of the Sun. In partial solar eclipses, the Moon casts only the outer part of its shadow, the penumbra, on Earth.

Where the Eclipse is visible?

This partial solar eclipse will be visible from Europe, Russia (Ural region and Western Siberian region) ,Central Asia and Western Asia, and north-east of Africa.

The animation shows how the moon’s shadow moves over the globe.

What are the timings of Eclipse?

First location to see the partial eclipse25 Oct, 08:58:21 UTC
Maximum Eclipse25 Oct, 11:00:16 UTC
Last location to see the partial eclipse25 Oct, 18:09:00 UTC
Partial solar eclipse ends25 Oct, 13:02:11 UTC


The Sun’s UV radiation can burn the retinas in the eyes leading to permanent damage or even blindness. This can occur even if your eyes are exposed to direct sunlight for just a few seconds.

Proper eye protection, like eclipse glasses or a Sun filter, is the only safe option

According to NASA, the following materials should never be used to view a solar eclipse: sunglasses of any kind , color film, medical X-ray film, smoked glass

Timing in Mumbai (Local time adjusted)

Partial solar eclipse begins25 Oct, 16:49
Maximum Eclipse25 Oct, 17:42
Sunset time25 Oct, 18:09
Partial solar eclipse ends25 Oct, 18:32

Timings for the other Indian Cities

Eclipse 25-oct-2022
Eclipse Visibility in India Source: Rashtriya Panchaang by Positional Astronomy Centre, Kolkata

Partial solar eclipse begins when the Moon starts moving over the Sun’s disk.
Maximum eclipse happens when the Moon covers the maximum of the Sun’s disk than at any other moment during the eclipse.
Partial solar eclipse ends when the Moon stops covering the Sun.

Direction of Moon over Sun during eclipse.
If we consider Sun as dial of a clock, then moon will ascend on the Sun from 9 o’clock direction i.e. from South west direction and before the eclipse ends, the Sun will set.

What is Saros Number?

This eclipse belongs to Saros 124 series. It is number 55 of 73 eclipses of this series. All eclipses in this series occur at the moon’s descending node. The moon moves northward in relation to the node with each succeeding eclipse in the series.

It is found that eclipses repeat itself after 18 years and 10/11 days. This means after every 18 years and 10/11 days, the Earth, the Sun, and Moon come in same position with respect to each other. As a result, due to similar alignment, eclipse repeats itself after same duration. This duration is called ‘Saros Cycle’.
All the solar eclipses happening due to a particular alignment of positions of the Sun, the Moon and the Earth and in one set of repetitions are clubbed into a Saros series/Saros family.

Magnitude of Solar Eclipse

The fraction of the apparent diameter of the disk of the Sun covered by that of the Moon at time of maximum eclipse is called the magnitude of eclipse.

Magnitude of partial solar eclipse is 0.8620. The Greatest Eclipse Point is placed at coordinates [61° 38′ 55.6″ N, 77° 20′ 44.7″ E]. From the Greatest Eclipse Point, at the time of maximum eclipse, the Moon covers 82.11% of Sun’s surface.
For Mumbai, magnitude of this eclipse is 0.3601. Maximum Eclipse will be at 17:43:00 local time when the 24.41% of Sun’s surface will be covered by the Moon

By- Mayura Behere

Discovery of atmospheric pressure on the dwarf planet Pluto

Discovery of atmospheric pressure on the dwarf planet Pluto

Atmospheric Pressure Discovery of Pluto

Everyone has heard of the dwarf planet Pluto. Scientists have discovered the atmospheric pressure on the dwarf planet Pluto.

The atmospheric pressure on Pluto is 80,000 times less than that on the Earth. It was discovered by the team of ARIES scientists and international scientists. Former PRL Chairman and senior scientist Dr NM Ashok also played important role in this research.

Information about what exactly that discovery was, how it was done and the professional astronomers involved in it can be found at many places.

I congratulate them for their respectable work and a sense of respect for all of them arises in my mind. But now I am going to talk about 3 amateur astronomers who are involved in this research.

Atmospheric Pressure of Pluto Discovery
Dainik Jagran – News Paper Clipping

The planet Pluto occulted a star in 2020. The observations were made through telescope in the ARIES. After studying the light curve and studying many aspects of the said occultation, these 3 amateur astronomers submitted the details to ARIES. And that work contributed a lot towards this research. These 3 amateur astronomers are Shishir Deshmukh, Ameya Deshpande and Ganesh Pawar of Akashmitra Mandal, Kalyan.

Today, these three have proved the importance and role of amateur astronomers in conducting such professional research. If we acknowledge and spread the word about such works, then the interest of everyone, especially young people like me, in astronomy will definitely increase. These three showed people today that not everyone needs to be a professional scientist to contribute to the field of astronomy. 3

I have as much respect for these three astronomers as I have for the professional astronomers, and seeing their achievements, many young people and all those interested in astronomy will make many such discoveries as professional astronomers in future, and even if not necessarily professionals, I hope they will work to provide important and useful information to the professional astronomers and work for contributing to the scientific community at large. This news is very inspiring for young amateur astronomers like me!
~ Archit Gokhale
@Amey Deshpande @Ganesh Pawar @Shishir Sir

Observations endorsed by IOTA

Yet another feather in AM’s cap.

Akashmitra Mandal (AM) has been observing stellar occultation events for last few years and have been submitting observations to International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA).

Following is the link related to this occultation event:

Last year, Akashmitra Mandal proposed Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Science (ARIES) to carry observation of rare stellar occultation by Dwarf planet Pluto using 1.2m and 3.6m telescopes at Devesthal Fast Optical Telescope (DFOT). After the successful observation of the event, data reduction was done and a paper on this collaborative work with scientists from premier institutes in India (like, PRL, IIST, IIA) and abroad is published in one of the most prestigious journals in the world, Astrophysical Journal Letters (ApJL).
Following is the link to full text paper: